Saturday, November 21, 2020



1.1              Background to the Study

Child labour is a universal problem. It dates back to the period of industrial revolution (late 1700s to early 1800s). (Lockwood, 2016).  During this period, a lot of families needed as many working hands as they could get, so children were not an exempted. However, Africa happens to have the largest number of child labourers. Meanwhile, in 2001 the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) developed strategies to fight child labour for exploitative labour purposes in West and Central Africa. (Anukan, 2016).

Child labour according to Dyorough, (2014) is the employment of children under the age of 18 in any form of work that interferes with their education and has negative effects on them physically, mentally, socially and morally. In Africa, the first commitment to combat trafficking is exemplified in Africa charter on the right or welfare of the child. In 2002, the African Union (AU) reaffirmed its commitment to combat child abuse. (Dyorouhg, 2014). It identified the elimination of human and child trafficking as an operational priority.

According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), child labour is still a very big problem in Nigeria. In 2003, the United Nations (UN) organized a convention on the protection of the underage children against. This convention thereby forbids underage children from engaging in labour works that may hinder their education and puts them at risk physically and mentally.

In the United Nations (UN) protocol to prevent, suppress or punish human trafficking in person especially women and children. The United Nations convention against transitional organized crime called Palermo protocols, defines human trafficking to mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring as receipt of persons by means of threat, or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, abuse of power or of a position of benefit, vulnerability, of the giving or receiving of payment to receive the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation and labourer. (Arinze, 2016).

In order to mobilize effective efforts, political will and policy responses to prevent or combat child labour, the international community reached a common consensus on a common normative definition in human beings which include various form of sexual exploitation or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or removal of organs. (Uzoezie, 2015). The focus of the provision stresses that child abuse for exploitative purposes should be considered as a crime and must be prosecuted. It’s also stressed that national laws should be reviewed to ensure compliance through legislative process and the protocol as a model.

According to Arinze (2016), the activities of some non-governmental organizations like women or child labour eradication. Women Trafficking and Child Labour Eradication Foundation (WOTCLEF) brought the issue of human trafficking especially child labour to the national discourse and made the wife of the former vice president Mrs. Titi Abubakar to initiate a bill to the national assembly in person. This action was followed by the establishment of National Agency for the Prohibition Trafficking in persons and other related matters. (Eru, 2000). The agency is to enforce the laws against trafficking in persons, investigate or prosecute persons suspected to engage in trafficking in persons or take change or coordinate the rehabilitation of victims of human trafficking.

Child abuse takes place in most parts of the world. Testimonies of victims of trafficking have shown that various techniques are used by traffickers to trick children and their parents. Research has also shown that there is a very powerful and highly organized network that is reaping substantial profits from exploiting the convenience of international communication weakness of penal system and vulnerability of parents and children. (Uzoezie, 2015).


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