Wednesday, November 18, 2020



1.1       Background to the Study 

Today, one of the most prevalent forms of advertising is through the use of celebrity endorsement. In fact celebrity endorsers are being used extensively in almost all television advertisements for the promotion of different brands, products and services. Marketers invest huge amounts of money in contracts with celebrity endorsers each year, with the belief that celebrities affect the process of selling of their brands or products positively. Marketers use celebrity endorsement in order to help in easy brand recall especially during purchasing situations.

According to (Neha 2013), celebrity endorsement in business organizations has become a multi-million industry especially in advertising. Nowadays, it has become a pervasive element of advertising industry to endorse a celebrity for advertising a product to arrest the attention of the consumers. Marketers use celebrity endorsers to influence the purchase decision of consumers in order to increase their sales and extend their market shares.

Meanwhile, when a product, brand or service needed to be presented in terms of running a brand’s or product’s official, social media therefore interact with consumers assuming the role of the brand, consumers feels an illusion of having an actual relationship with the brand presented product or service. (Anagha, 2013)

In less than a decade after the invention of social media, it became the most popular activity on the internet and have been so successful that they reach more consumers than email ever did (Bright and Cunningham, 2012). Social media is a group of internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technical foundations of Web 2.0, which allow the user creation and exchange of generated content. (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010).

Social media therefore is a broad term that describes software/tools that create user generated content that can be shared (Sinclaire, Jollean and Vogus, 2011). There are certain fundamental features necessary for a website to meet the requirements as a social network website. The site must contain user profiles, a content, and a method that permits users to connect with each other and post comments on each other’s pages, and join virtual groups based on common interests such as fashion or politics (Cox, 2010).

Classification of Social Media by social presence/media richness and self-presentation/self-disclosure are as follows, blogs, social networking sites (e.g.: Facebook), virtual social worlds (e.g.Second life), collaborative projects (e.g. Wikipedia), content communities (e.g.YouTube) and virtual game worlds (eg: World of war craft) (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010).

Meanwhile, the motivation to adopt a celebrity for brand recognition is to attract the customer’s attention and developing positive associations not just to influence or recall the consumers, but also to induce trial and eventually affect consumers purchasing/buying decisions. In marketing where advertising plays a vital role in coordinating consumer purchases, it becomes important for companies to induce all possible measures to influence, motivate and inculcate the interest of the consumers to purchase the product or subscribe to the service advertised through an effective advertising campaign. (Neha 2013).

Celebrities therefore are the people who enjoy public recognition by a large share of a certain group of people whereby attributes like class, attractiveness, extraordinary lifestyle are examples and specific common characteristics cannot be observed though it can be said that within a corresponding social group celebrities generally differ from the social norm and enjoy a high degree of public awareness. (Anagha, 2013).



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